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The Corona epidemic has shaken the entire world. The epidemic spread beyond China in January and gradually spread around the world. Efforts are being made at all levels to save lives. Even after about 11 months, Corona has overcome every attempt at recovery with a new and more powerful wave. The only hope now is a vaccine to prevent this epidemic in these circumstances. Vaccines are eagerly awaited around the world.

Knowing what is needed for this vaccine becomes very important when scientists around the world are trying to develop a vaccine to eradicate the coronavirus. Medical science is very difficult to understand. If it were that simple, every other person would have become a doctor. We have tried to find out from the experts how the corona virus attacks the body. What is the body's response to that? Why is a vaccine needed? How is the vaccine prepared? You need to know the answers to 5 questions.

What is the body's response to a corona virus attack?

Why is a vaccine needed to eradicate corona virus?

How is the vaccine being prepared?

What is the vaccine approval PROCESS?
What process has the government decided if time is short?

So let's understand this issue in detail ....
1. What is the body's response to a corona virus attack?

Our body has a wonderful system of nature. When a virus attacks, our body recognizes that an outside virus has become active. An immune cell, called an antigen presenting cell (APC), is the first to encircle the virus. It makes a viral protein, called an antigen. These antigens activate the body's immune system and report that a virus has attacked and it is very important to fight it.
The first killer T cells in the immune system are activated. It activates B cells by identifying antigens. These T and B cells are frontline warriors inside our bodies to fight off virus-like attackers. As they learn that the virus has attacked they increase their numbers.
The disease lasts until the attacks and the immune system are activated and the virus takes over. During this time fever, cough, sore throat, difficulty in breathing may occur. If a patient has diabetes, heart disease, or other serious illness, the virus increases in number before the immune response is activated. If not treated properly, the patient dies.
This is about the body's own process to fight the virus. Now the question arises that-
2. Why is a vaccine needed to fight the virus?

First of all, what is a vaccine? In fact the vaccine prepares the body to fight a virus before it attacks. Now you may be wondering if all your family members have been vaccinated, are you afraid of corona? Probably not at all. This action is expected from the vaccine.
The more people who are vaccinated, the more people will be protected from the virus. This will lead to herd immunity, as scientists have said before. Now you say what is this herd immunity? So it is very important for you to know that this is a scientific term, which means that most people's bodies are in a position to fight the virus. This will make it a protective shield for vaccinated people whose bodies are not ready to fight the virus. This process cannot be a surprise. It happens slowly. That's why vaccines are being awaited to fight the virus.

In fact some countries thought after the epidemic that vaccines were not needed. When most people have coronary heart disease, their body will develop antibodies to fight it and will have a weakened immune system. The medical journal The Lancet published a study on such efforts in Spain and found that thousands of people would lose their lives fighting the virus if they did. It was then stated that herd immunity would not occur without the vaccine..


It is now understood that a vaccine is needed to fight corona. However, how will this be prepared?
3. How many types of vaccines are being developed to prevent corona?

Scientists around the world have come up with different methods for preparing vaccines. The purpose of all this is to prepare the body for the fight before the virus attacks. That is to make an antigen so that the body can identify it and be able to fight it. There are currently six types of vaccines in the world.
1. Live virus: Genetic mutation in the original virus. So that he was sent to the weakened body. Because of this he could not grow and the body learned to cope.
2. Inactivated virus: The original virus was weakened by radiation, chemicals or heat. He also could not grow or get sick.
3. Protein subunit: The virus takes up a portion of the antigen. It weakens. Does not multiply. Doesn't make you sick. Teaches the body to fight.
4. Virus-like particles: They are weak viruses. Can't harm the body but lets the immune system learn how to beat it.
5. DNA-RNA: Messenger RNA (mRNA) or DNA code goes into the body to make virus proteins. Makes antigen. The immune system produces antibodies.
6. Virus vector: It goes all over the body and prepares corona virus antigen. Activates the immune system from viruses such as adenoviruses.

This is about vaccine preparation and its method. Once the vaccine is ready it is safe and effective, that's how it is known.
4. What is the procedure for approval of vaccine?

This is a long process. The vaccine goes through several stages in getting from the laboratory to the clinic:

1. Pre-clinical testing: Vaccine tests are performed on animals in the lab. The immune response determines what should happen.
2. Phase-1 Safety Trials: Some volunteers are selected and vaccinated. Test results are analyzed based on how their body reacted.
3. Phase-2 Extended Trials: The vaccine is now administered to different age groups. This shows the safety of the vaccine and its ability to stimulate the immune system.
4. Phase-3 Efficacy Trials: These are final phase trials. Thousands are vaccinated. Observations are made for several months. Efficacy is determined by how many people respond.
5. Approval / Production: Each country's drug regulator approves vaccines on the basis of safety and effectiveness based on the results of Phase-3. Its production begins.

This is a formal process. It takes many years. The WHO has declared the corona virus an epidemic and there is an urgent need for a vaccine. Some countries adopt the method of emergency or early approval. I.e. to see the vaccine effective in Phase-1 or Phase-2, also to allow it. Even then some countries do not want to approve without Phase-3 trials.
5. What process do governments decide if time is short?

The vaccine takes many years to prepare. Corona vaccine is made and approaching approval, it is a record. The world has never developed a vaccine so quickly. Even then, drug regulators around the world have changed the rules with the World Health Organization (WHO) to combat the epidemic.
Have merged in several stages.

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