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Career Guidance Book in Gujarati , Download karkirdi margadarshan Book pdf

Career Guidance Book in Gujarati , Download karkirdi margadarshan Book pdf

What to do after 10th? Career Options after SSC
Have you just completed your 10th standard (SSC)? You may be confused about deciding a right career path. You might have many questions in mind like What should I do after 10th? , Which stream should I select? Science , Commerce or Arts?, Which is a better field? Selecting the right course after class X is very important as this will have an important impact on what will you become in future.

What Afer SSC Science or Commerce or Arts?

A good option after 10th is studying +2 or HSC. It can help to secure a strong foundation for further studies like graduation and post graduation. The selection of the streams for 11th and 12th standard (HSC) depends upon the students aptitude but the most important factor is one’s interest in the subject and the purpose for selecting the course.

Whether to choose science, commerce or arts stream is the most difficult thing to decide for students. Lets make it simple. Choose a field in which you have passion. Remember, no field is better or superior than other. It just depends on what you like to do.

If you select Science stream, you have further 3 more options for selecting the subjects. You can select Maths or Biology from the optional subject. Some students opt for both Mathematics and Science subjects. If you want to become engineer then select Maths and if you want to go in medical field then select Biology.

Instead of going for HSC (10 +2 years), you can opt for Diploma engineering after standard 10. Some fields that you can select in diploma are Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Communication, Computer technology, Information technology, Information & Control Engineering, Power Engineering, Mechatronics, Hotel Management and Cattering technology, Plastic engineering, Fabrication Technology, Chemical Engineering, Printing Technology, Ceramic Technology, Architecture Assistant-ship, Automobile Engineering, Metallurgy, Textile Manufacturing, Textile Processing, Mining Engineering etc. You will generally need to give an entrance test to get admission. Generally the Central diploma admission committee takes the exam.

Apart from these, there are also many other options such as joining ITI, ITC, Indian Army, Navy and Police Force.

Career Guidance Book in Gujarati (What after 10th / 12th?)
Gujarat Information department published career Guidance Book (Karkirdi Margdarshan). You can view or download this book in pdf format by below mentioned link. This book is published by Gujarat Information Department each year. You can get guidance for what after 10th and what after 12th.
  • Career Guidance Book 2021
  • Karkirdi Margdarshan 2021
  • Opportunities after 12th:
  • Courses after 12th Science
  • Cut off list for Medical Courses
  • Opportunities after 12th Commerce
  • Attractive courses of Financial Management
  • Water Resources Management
  • Entrance Tests after 12th
  • Career in Graphic Design Fashion Technology
  • Para Medical Field
  • Marine Engineering
  • Courses at Gujarat State Rakshashakti University
  • Forensic Science Courses
  • Career in Merchant Navy
  • Fire Technology
  • Career in Hotel, Tourism and Hospitality
  • Printing and Packaging Industry
  • Opportunities after 10th:
  • Diploma courses for Engineering
  • Opportunities after 10th
  • Career oriented technical courses in 

Competitiveness: The US is a highly competitive context for careers in higher education. According to the Academic World Ranking of Universities more than 30 of the highest-ranked 45 institutions are in the United States.

Openness to non-nationals: Strong research and funding have made American universities among the most competitive and prestigious worldwide, which is particularly attractive to international professors and researchers. US universities generally welcome foreign researchers across all disciplines, although there is not a great emphasis on the internationalization of curricula or research.

Postdoc: There are many opportunities for postdocs and other types of research funding attached to universities and research centres.

Entry positions: Assistant Professor is the entry position in the US academia. Click here for more information.

Career progress: After a probationary period of 6-7 years, Assistant Professors usually gain a tenured position. From there, they can move to Full Professorship after showing significant achievements in their academic performance.

Temporary/permanent positions: Before becoming Assistant Professor, an academic may hold a temporary postdoc and/or instructor/Adjunct Professor position. The use of part-time faculty in US universities is increasing.

Salaries: Salaries are negotiated at the university level. Huge variations exist from one university or department to another. See salaries for more information.

Gender: Women's representation in the US academe is relatively stronger - even in higher positions - compared to other countries. Click here for more information.

Universities and research instititutions: According to UNESCO the US has the second largest number of higher education institutions in the world, with a total of 5,758, an average of more than 115 per state.

Job postings: Click here for a list of on-line job search resources for the US.

Higher Education in the USA

In 2011-2012, the USA had 4,706 degree-granting universities and colleges (National Centre for Education Statistics), varying greatly in quality and prestige. Of these, 653 were public institutions offering a four-year curriculum and roughly 120 of these are research universities. The information below mainly covers research universities, as they are most relevant for academic careers.

The federal government plays a limited role in US higher education. Except for US service academies the federal government does not directly regulate universities, although it can give federal grants to them. The US university system is decentralized, with the states retaining power over public universities and colleges, and private universities being almost entirely autonomous. Quality among US universities is ensured by a process of accreditation, a system in which the universities have developed independent agencies that rate academic programs on criteria such as the publishing records of their faculty and quality of their libraries. Non-accredited institutions are broadly perceived as lacking in quality. Public universities are both publicly and privately funded, and students pay tuition fees that are much higher than those common in Europe. Most universities, public and private, are supported by endowments. Tuition and fees payments from students and families are the major source of revenue for most institutions.
  • Career Curriculum
  • Ph.D. Researcher
  • Postdoctoral researcher/Instructor
  • Assistant Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Full Professor
The average age for obtaining a PhD in the US is 37 years (mainly due to its structured nature, which prescribes upfront two full years of research training).

In terms of mobility, it is common, and increasingly so, for academics to move jobs during their careers, often more than once. As one of the former Max Weber fellows, now with a position in the US academia, has put it: "Climbing the ladder is very much a real thing".

Requirements for Positions

Assistant Professor is the entry position to the US academic system. One can move directly from PhD Researcher to Assistant Professor, although scholars often work as Instructor or hold a temporary postdoctoral position first.

Assistant professorships are advertised and applied for in open competition. The position is generally untenured, although in most institutions the term 'tenure-track' position is used; that is, the candidate can obtain tenure after a probationary period of around 6-7 years. At the end of this period, on the basis of the accomplishments in the areas of teaching, research and service, the candidate is promoted to Associate Professor and receives tenure, a condition that provides employment for life. It is the individual universities that carry out the evaluation and promotions. In most places around 50% of Assistant Professors obtain tenure (but the trend is definitely declining, see Digest of Educational Statistics: 2009) and are promoted to Associate Professor after the sixth year.

Based on continuing accomplishments, an Associate Professor may be promoted to Full Professor. Normally, one becomes Full Professor after serving a minimum five years as Associate Professor. Promotion to the position of Full Professor requires one to demonstrate significantly more accomplishments beyond those that were required to gain tenure.

There is also a position of Visting Assistant Professor, which is somewhere between an Adjunct and a Tenure-track Assistant Professor position. This position is typicaly for a set number of years and involves more non-teaching duties, better pay, lower teaching load, whereas Adjunct position is typically term to term

On average, the time that elapses between entering graduate school and attaining the rank of Full Professor in a university is 17-20 years. Promotion can also be through open competition, usually at another institution.

A scholar's value on the academic market is very much based on his/her research output. Research in the US is mainly measured by number of articles in peer reviewed journals.

Research Career

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Barriers to Career Advancement

The US system is characterized by a significant amount of opportunity to advance based on merit, however some barriers persist. In the postdoctoral phase, the US academic system is quite competitive. Letters of recommendation play a role in application processes and having a well established senior scholar (a mentor) in one’s field as a reference can be important in the selection process. This does not mean, however, that one can not get access to the American market without good contacts. As in the UK, American academia is very open to employing staff from foreign countries.

In many of the less prestigious universities, there is a growing number of full-time but non-tenure-track positions consisting of faculty who are mostly hired to teach with four or five-year contracts. Career advancement from one of these positions can be very difficult as one is usually not expected to do research and rarely has time to do so. This is less the case for the top research institutions, where it is mostly visiting professors who are hired on full-time temporary contract lasting one or two years. Often this is done to substitute staff on leave, or because the institution could not fill up the position when attempting to hire someone permanently.

It is also worth noting that there are differential teaching loads. Scholars at research institutions typically teach 3-4 courses per year, whereas scholars at less prestigious or teaching-oriented institutions often teach 6-8 courses per year. Typically, the research expectations for tenure are adjusted accordingly.

Very few people become Full Professors before the age of 40; the average age of Full Professors is 55 and the average age when tenure is granted is at 39.

As od the 2014-2015 academic year, women made up 43.5% of the teaching staff at public universities and 41.7% of teaching staff at private universities (details, American Association of University Professors). Compared to other countries, the proportion of women is relatively high and decreases less within the academic hierarchy: 54% of Lecturers and Instructors, 47% of Assistant Professors, 40% of Associate Professors, and 32% of Full Professors are women.

During the 2014-2015 academic year, men who were full-professors at public universities had an average salary of $ 120,055, while women in the same role earned an average salary of $104,832. Male full-professors at private universities earned an average salary of $154,144 during the 2014-2015 academic year. Female full-professors at private universities earned an average salary of $133,228 (details, American Association of University Professors).

Job Security

The tenure system is adopted as an internal policy among the majority of US universities, and provides for a relatively stable career, once tenure is achieved, usually at the level of Associate Professor. The Assistant Professor position usually is a tenure-track position, meaning that one is eligible for promotion to the position of Associate Professor after the required skills in teaching and research have been documented. There is some evidence to suggest that tenure-track university employment in US universities is becoming less universal.

The level of benefits varies from state to state and from institution to institution. Generally all academic posts include medical and health insurance as well as a pension.

Adjunct Professors or part-time teachers rarely have any benefits or even office space, and have a considerably lower pay than other faculty. In general, the use of non-tenured and part-time faculty is increasing.

Contracts and Duties


Instructors are either completing their PhD or have recently obtained the degree and are beginning their teaching careers. They are employed part-time in a teaching capacity, and usually spend about nine to twelve hours a week teaching.


A postdoctoral position usually is related to research projects established by departments or individual Professors in the universities. These positions may also be more individually defined and allow time for one's own research. Funding opportunities and the availability of these positions vary widely. It became now standard practice in the US to hold a postdoctoral position for 1-4 years.

Adjunct Professor

Adjunct professors do not have a permanent position in the academic institution. They may be people with a job outside the institution who teach courses in a specialized field on a contractual basis. This position is not generally tenure-tracked.

Assistant Professor

Assistant Professorships normally are 6-7 years probational positions where both teaching and research are expected, although the proportion expected of each varied widely from university to university. Assistant Professors on average teach 9-12 hours weekly or two classes per semester. They are expected to conduct research projects and publish. The position can be seen as a training period during which one works to develop a case for tenure.

Associate Professor

Associate Professors spend fewer hours on undergraduate teaching (about 6-9 hours a week) and are likely to lead graduate classes and advise graduate students on their dissertation projects.

Full Professor

Full Professors usually teach 3-6 hours per week. They take an active role in the research projects and dissertations of doctoral candidates. Further advancement opportunities include positions in administration such as department chair, dean of students, or college president.

Sabbatical Opportunities

The sabbatical system in most US institutions is well organized. Newly appointed Assistant Professors are normally entitled to one semester of sabbatical leave after six semesters with full responsibilities. The general guideline is that one year of paid sabbatical leave is granted after seven years of meeting full departmental responsibilities. Sabbatical leave should be used for individual research or other work-related activities. Unpaid leave can be applied for individually.

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