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Makes mistakes in place value in numbers. (3) Std. 1 students make mistakes in alphabet writing and reading. (4) There is a lack of public participation in primary schools. (5) Students show indifference towards cultural activities. : is coming . Thus, the probable cause of the problem and its investigation is a very important step. 

Basic essential information: The teacher noted the possible reasons for his problem. In this regard, the teacher gets the necessary information and performs the necessary tests. In such a test, the student's notebook, examination papers, opinions of other teachers will be useful. In Problem-1 shown here, it is possible to determine which punctuation marks a student makes by checking the student's essay notes, examining the students' exam answer scripts, writing the dictation of a paragraph to the students. 

Thus, the third step of functional research is to verify the basic essential information regarding the possible causes of the problem. (4) Concepts: Consideration of what should be done to solve the problem because the teacher can do something to solve the problem is called conjecture. Imagination is a possible way to solve a problem. 

The teacher thinks of such possible ways for all the reasons that lead to the solution of the problem. E.g. There is a reason in problem-1 shown here. Students do not fully recognize punctuation. The way to overcome this cause - may be conjecture. Students can identify punctuation if the teacher identifies various punctuation marks such as full stop, comma, semicolon with the help of chart. Meaning possible solution if ... and then ... is shown using. The researcher teacher should formulate such hypotheses for the causes of the problem related to himself. 

Outline of the experiment: Based on the assumptions, the teacher decides what actions he will take to solve the various causes of the problem. That is why it is also called Action Plan. Action plans are at the heart of functional research. The work plan shows the work method, tools, order of work, required number of hours etc. 

Evaluation: Evaluation is done to check how successful the experiment was in the end. Here's how this assessment will be done. E.g. Errors in the use of punctuation marks at the beginning of the experiment in Problem 1 presented here. The problem area of ​​the above problem 1 is: Gujarati writing and it is the only problem for Std. 5 of a particular school. (2) Possible causes of the problem: After determining the problem and the problem area, the teacher thinks about the possible causes for the origin of the problem. 

The teacher determines the cause of the problem through rational consideration in a scientific manner. Thought-sharing with one's co-workers is useful in finding such reasons. The teacher notes all these possible reasons. He then thinks the following about these reasons. Is this a fact? The reason is assumption? E.g. The problem is the villagers do not visit the school. Now this is the experience of all teachers. Some don't even bother to come to school. The fact is, there are some things that a teacher might expect. E.g. Students in Problem 1 do not understand how to use punctuation. 

That may be the teacher's assumption. Although there is no definite proof of the cause, the teacher thinks that the cause is responsible for the problem. That may be the teacher's assumption. After this the teacher has to think of an important thing. Can anything be done to eliminate this cause? The answer to the question can be either ‘yes’ or ‘no’, somewhere the teacher is able to remove the cause. While some of the reasons may not be removed by the teacher. E.g. There is a reason in problem-2021


The home environment of the students is not conducive and conducive to cultural activities. "It is now impossible for the teacher to eliminate these causes, as the teacher is not able to change the home environment. Focusing on the causes that the teacher can do anything to prioritize the causes.

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